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They chose twenty-four genes previously identified as important in ESCs and used retroviruses to deliver these genes to mouse fibroblasts.
The fibroblasts were engineered so that any cells reactivating the ESC-specific gene, Fbx15, could be isolated using antibiotic selection.
Oct-3/4 and certain products of the Sox gene family (Sox1, Sox2, Sox3, and Sox15) have been identified as crucial transcriptional regulators involved in the induction process whose absence makes induction impossible.
Additional genes, however, including certain members of the Klf family (Klf1, Klf2, Klf4, and Klf5), the Myc family (c-myc, L-myc, and N-myc), Nanog, and LIN28, have been identified to increase the induction efficiency.
With the same principle used in mouse reprogramming, Yamanaka's group successfully transformed human fibroblasts into i PSCs with the same four pivotal genes, OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and C-MYC, using a retroviral system, The generation of i PS cells is crucially dependent on the transcription factors used for the induction.
The most well-known type of pluripotent stem cell is the embryonic stem cell.