Ballpoint ink dating heating
He had studied medicine, art, and hypnotism, and in 1935 he was editing a small newspaper-where he was frustrated by the amount of time he wasted filling fountain pens and cleaning up ink smudges.
Besides that, the sharp tip of his fountain pen often scratched or tore through the newsprint (paper).
The Biro brothers returned to their laboratory and devised a new design, which relied on "capillsry action" rather than gravity to feed the ink.
The rough "ball" at the end of the pen acted like a metal sponge, and with this improvement ink could flow more smoothly to the ball, and the pen could be held at a slant rather than straight up.
Because many of the patents had expired, Reynolds thought he could avoid any legal problems, and so he went about copying much of the Biros design.
John Louds pen was never produced, nor were any of the other 350 patents for ball-type pens issued over the next thirty years.
For the pen to regain the publics favor and trust, somebody would have to invent one that was smooth writing, quick drying, nonskipping, nonfading, and most important didnt leak. Frawley met Fran Seech, an unemployed Los Angeles chemist who had lost his job when the ballpoint pen company he was working for had gone out of business.