It has become clear that there have been major problems with dating reliability and accuracy across the Paleolithic in general, with studies highlighting issues with underestimation of the ages of different dated samples from previously analyzed sites (6). At Mezmaiskaya, the AMS dates obtained for the Neanderthal excavated above the previously dated individual were substantially older (9). In both cases, revised radiocarbon dates produced with more robust chemical pretreatment methods have illustrated significant underestimates in the previous dates that cannot be reconciled with a hypothesis of late-surviving refugial Neanderthals. However, for Vi-207, the 30-k Da fraction obtained produced a C/N ratio of 4.3, which indicates the presence of a high molecular weight contaminant.
We applied zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (Zoo MS) to find additional hominin remains.Despite the system having been proposed to simplify things for scientists, the fact that the BP is sometimes defined as “Before Physics” muddies the waters that much more! A simple US starting in what we now call 1776, the birth of the United States? He served during the Cold War and has traveled to many countries around the world.Apparently all the atmospheric nuclear testing going on around the world at that time had the potential to throw off radioactivity as a measure of age. Prior to his military service, he graduated from Cleveland State University, having majored in sociology.We identified one bone that is Neanderthal, based on its mitochondrial DNA, and dated it directly to 46,200 ± 1,500 B. We also attempted to date six early Upper Paleolithic bone points from stratigraphic units G. in Europe witnessed the so-called biocultural transition from the Middle to early Upper Paleolithic, when incoming anatomically modern humans displaced Neanderthal groups across the continent (1, 2).
These dates suggest a co-occurrence of early Upper Paleolithic osseous artifacts, particularly split-based points, alongside the remains of Neanderthals is a result of postdepositional mixing, rather than an association between the two groups, although more work is required to show this definitively. Significant questions still remain regarding the precise nature of this transition, the humans responsible for the various transitional early Upper Paleolithic industries, the degree of overlap between Neanderthals and modern humans, and the timing of the disappearance of the former.
Only 101 samples produced identifiable spectra; a summary of all taxa identified by Zoo MS is shown in ), which again highlights the use of applying such techniques to groups of unidentified Paleolithic bone samples.