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Repeated measures models were used for the longitudinal analyses by adjusting for time-varying or invariant covariates.On average, participants gained weight and WC during follow-up. After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors (including diet quality), participants who consumed ≥3 servings/d of total dairy had 0.10 [±0.04] kg smaller annualized increment of weight (Further longitudinal and interventional studies are warranted to confirm the beneficial role of increasing total dairy and yogurt intake, as part of a healthy and calorie-balanced dietary pattern, in the long-term prevention of gain in weight and WC., it must also be part of the strategy for reversing trends in weight gain.
The dairy foods included in the current study were: skim or low-fat milk, whole milk, cream (e.g., coffee, whipped), sour cream, sherbet or ice milk, ice cream, yogurt, cottage or ricotta cheese, cream cheese, and other cheese (e.g., American, cheddar, etc.).An FFQ was deemed invalid if reported total energy intake of 12 blank food items).Among the remaining 12,012 observations, we then excluded the missing observations of dairy consumption (n=1), body weight and WC (n=109) during follow-up.The possibility that consuming dairy products may influence body weight has been examined in a few prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) .