Dating age formula wikipedia
The use of paper spread from China into Muslim regions in the eighth century, arriving in Al-Andalus on the Iberian peninsula, present-day Spain in the 10th century.
It was easier to manufacture than parchment, less likely to crack than papyrus, and could absorb ink, making it difficult to erase and ideal for keeping records.
Islamic "universities" of the Middle Ages were in fact madrasas, centers for the study of religious texts and law.
Only after the Arabs came in contact with the institutions of higher learning of the Christian Greek Roman Empire during their conquests did the madrasas begin to teach other subjects as well - but the only degree granted remained that of expert in religious law: "There was no other 'doctorate' in any other field, no license to teach a field except that of the religious law".
Throughout the 4th to 7th centuries, Christian scholarly work in the Greek and Syriac languages was either newly translated or had been preserved since the Hellenistic period.
Among the prominent centers of learning and transmission of classical wisdom were Christian colleges such as the School of Nisibis The House of Wisdom was founded in Baghdad in 825, modelled after the Academy of Gondishapur.
The formal attestation of educational attainment, ijaza, was granted by a particular scholar rather than the institution, and it placed its holder within a genealogy of scholars, which was the only recognized hierarchy in the educational system.
With a new and easier writing system, and the introduction of paper, information was democratized to the extent that, for probably the first time in history, it became possible to make a living from simply writing and selling books.
The various Quranic injunctions and Hadith, which place values on education and emphasize the importance of acquiring knowledge, played a vital role in influencing the Muslims of this age in their search for knowledge and the development of the body of science. The money spent on the Translation Movement for some translations is estimated to be equivalent to about twice the annual research budget of the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council.
During this period, the Muslims showed a strong interest in assimilating the scientific knowledge of the civilizations that had been conquered.
During this period hundreds of scholars and scientists vastly contributed to technology, science and medicine, later influencing the rise of European science during the Renaissance.
For the first few centuries of Islam, educational settings were entirely informal, but beginning in the 11th and 12th centuries, the ruling elites began to establish institutions of higher religious learning known as madrasas in an effort to secure support and cooperation of the ulema.The madrasa is one of the relics of the Fatimid caliphate.The Fatimids traced their descent to Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and named the institution using a variant of her honorific title Al-Zahra (the brilliant).The metaphor of a golden age began to be applied in 19th-century literature about Islamic history, in the context of the western aesthetic fashion known as Orientalism.