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Anarchist Peter Sabatini reports that in the United States of early to mid-19th century, "there appeared an array of communal and 'utopian' counterculture groups (including the so-called free love movement).
William Godwin's anarchism exerted an ideological influence on some of this, but more so the socialism of Robert Owen and Charles Fourier.
In the first half of the twentieth century, the Soviet Union and the Communist parties of the Third International around the world mainly came to represent socialism in terms of the Soviet model of economic development, the creation of centrally planned economies directed by a state that owns all the means of production, although other trends condemned what they saw as the lack of democracy.
In the United Kingdom, Herbert Morrison said that "socialism is what the Labour government does" whereas Aneurin Bevan argued that socialism requires that the "main streams of economic activity are brought under public direction", with an economic plan and workers' democracy.
Anarcho-syndicalists and some elements of the New Left and others favored decentralized collective ownership in the form of cooperatives or workers' councils.
At the turn of the 21st century in Latin America, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez championed what he termed socialism of the 21st century, which included a policy of nationalisation of national assets such as oil, anti-imperialism and termed himself a Trotskyist supporting permanent revolution.
In the last third of the 19th century, Social Democratic parties arose in Europe, drawing mainly from Marxism.
Fourierism manifested itself "in the middle of the 19th century (where) literally hundreds of communes (phalansteries) were founded on fourierist principles in France, N. The UK government's Factory Act of 1833 attempted to reduce the hours adults and children worked in the textile industry.In England, "communism" sounded too close to communion – with Catholic overtones; hence atheists preferred to call themselves socialists.By 1847, according to Frederick Engels "Socialism" was "respectable" on the continent of Europe while "Communism" was the opposite as the Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered Socialists, while working-class movements which "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" termed themselves "Communists".Eight hours' daily labor is enough for any [adult] human being, and under proper arrangements sufficient to afford an ample supply of food, raiment and shelter, or the necessaries and comforts of life, and for the remainder of his time, every person is entitled to education, recreation and sleep.
Leaving England for the United States, Robert Owen and his sons began an experiment with a socialist community in New Harmony, Indiana in 1825.According to Sheldon Richman, "[i]n the 19th and early 20th centuries, 'socialism' did not exclusively mean collective or government ownership of the means or production but was an umbrella term for anyone who believed labor was cheated out of its natural product under historical capitalism", the use of the words "socialism" or "communism" related to the perceived attitude toward religion in a given culture.Continental Europeans considered "communism" more atheistic then "socialism".A fifteen-hour working day was to start at 5.30 a.m. Children of nine to thirteen years could work no more than 9 hours, and workers of a younger age were prohibited.